Samuel Willingale – Epping Forest Arbitration Proceedings 03 Nov 1880

Transcript of

Epping Forest Arbitration Proceedings 03/11/1880

 Loughton Lopping Rights

 Page 15

 Samuel Willingale, Sworn

Examined by Mr Cave

165       Do you live at Baldwins Hill, Loughton

Yes

166  How old are you?

Forty

167  Have you lived at Loughton all your life

Yes

168  Have you lopped trees in the forest?

Yes

169  When did you begin to do that

In November, the 11th, night

170 I mean how old were you when you first did it?

I used to go along with my father there when I was seven or eight years old, to draw it together and fetch it home after he has got it, in my young time.

171 Have you cut it since that time pretty regularly?

Yes

172 Where did your father live?

At Golder’s Hall, Baldwin’s Hill

173  How much wood do you suppose was burnt in your house at first; I mean that your father burnt?      In my fathers time?

174 Yes in your fathers time

I would say between 30 and 40 heaps

175 What do you mean by a heap?

A slid

176 At that time did you burn anything else except this wood?

No, father used to ask the keeper there for a dead tree, and then he would give him a dead tree to go and   fetch out of the Forest – what was dead at that time

177 Except the dead trees, you only burnt this wood which you lopped?

No

178 Of late years have you burnt coal as well?

Yes we have burnt coal of late years

179 When did you begin to burn coal?

I should say pretty well 20 years ago

180 Have you also gone lopping to the present time?

Yes up to last year. I took about 30 heaps last year because I heard there would be no more   lopping, so I cut a   little extra.

181 How much of those 30 heaps have you burnt during the year?

I would say I have about 300 faggots left out of it

182 Then you have burnt half of it?

Yes about half

183 What have you generally burnt, do you suppose the last few years?

About 300, because we always bake once a week, and that takes two faggots a week for baking

184  That is 100. What else do you use it for?

We use it for lighting fires. In summer time if we want to boil the kettle we do not use any coal but only a   piece of wood

185  You do not keep a fire burning all day in summer time

No

186  You make it up of the wood only?

Yes just so

187  How did you get the wood out – did you cut it yourself?

Yes I cut it myself, and carried it home on my back

188  When did you do this – what time of day?

I work on a building and sometimes when I am frozen out then I fetch it, and sometimes of a night when it is   moonlight when I have been at work

189  When you are thrown out of work, or at night time?

Yes any leisure time

190  Were you able to get all you wanted without sacrificing a days work?

Well, sometimes if it was not a winter with any frost we used to get a day; we used to have a day to go and   cut it.

191  What do you mean by having a day?

Instead of working that day we go lopping in the forest

192  How many days would you have to give up for that to get the fuel you wanted for the year?

We have never done it, not a day. We have done it at night when the moon shone, and at leisure times.

193  You have done it at odd times, have you?

Yes

194  Do you remember the enclosures taking place

Yes

195  Were there more trees before that time than there are now, or fewer, or what?

Yes a great deal more than double.

196  How did you cut it in the old times

We used to cut some off one tree, pick the best bits out, and leave the other there for another year

197  You took the best boughs?

Yes

198  Of late years has that been altered at all?

No, only what has been done illegal

199  Did any one look after you in old times to see how it was cut?

Yes, Hatherill, the keeper

200  Has anyone looked after it of late?

No

201  Nobody at all?

No

202  People have cut as much as they liked?

Yes, they have done as they liked

203  And did the inhabitants of Loughton generally get their fuel in the same way as you did?

Yes

204  Go and cut it themselves and bring it home on their backs?

No, not all, some of them paid 9d a heap for cutting

Mr Webster: You put a general question – the inhabitants of Loughton generally

205  Mr Cave: I do not mean that. Taking people who work for their own living, how would they get their wood?

If they were in work they would pay some one else to go and cut a slid of wood.

206  And if they were out of work?

If they were out of work they would cut it themselves

207  When they paid other people to go and cut it what would they pay?

They pay 9d a heap for cutting and 9d to bring it home.

208  9d a slid?

Yes, that is what they charge in the village to one another, but it is worth more than that. It is worth   more than 1s 6d

209  That is what they charge one another?

Yes

210  Do the people who cut it sometimes make it up into faggots and sell the faggots?

Not until the last few years, since the enclosure

211  During the last few years they have?

Yes

212  What have they sold the faggots at when they have made them up into faggots?

About 14s

213  14s a hundred?

Yes 14s a hundred

214  In the old days it was always sold by the slid was it?

Yes 1s 6d a slid

 

Cross examined by Mr Webster

 

215  It was what used to be paid for cutting and bringing it home – 1s 6d

Yes

216  I understand you say, if a man was at work and did not want to go and do it himself that is what he used to   pay?

Yes

217  You said that it was worth more than that. What do you consider it is worth a slid, cutting and bringing it   home?

If you get 5 heaps of wood it would make 100 faggots or 14s

 

218       If you get 5 slids and make 100 faggots, that is to say it would be 14s, then of course it would be 3s. Who            was this man who was keeper; whose keeper was he. He was the lords keeper was he not, Mr Maitland’s?

Yes

219       He was the man – I do not mean that particular man – but the man who had the same post as the man your          father asked leave of to take a dead tree out of the forest

Yes

220       You say that you used to burn about 300 faggots in the year

Yes with baking and lighting fires

221  Can you tell me during the last ten years any number of slids that have produced any number of faggots that   you have counted?

Any number of the faggots

222  I do not want your opinion for the moment, but can you tell me any particular year during the last ten how   many faggots a given number of slids would produce – one slid, or two or ten?

One slid would make 20 faggots

223  Now at the present time?

Yes You must put more branches in according to the wood

224  You say it is a question of the number of branches. If the branches are small?

If the branches are small you want a great many more for a heap than what you do when they are larger

225  Is a slid a uniform height or not?

No, not any particular height

226  About what does it run?

The height of a slid of wood do you mean?

227  Yes

About 6 feet.

228  Of course the limit is really is what a man can carry or bring home. If you have thick branches, about   how many would go to a slid, do you know?

Do you mean now?

229  Either now or formerly. If you have larger branches, how many would go to a slid; and of small, how   many?

When they were larger they would take about 120. Now, about 160 I should think

230  I think I rather gather it from what you said, but I will put it distinctly to you 1s 6d being what was paid, if   a man was in good work it would scarcely be worth his while to go and cut it himself, he would send   somebody else?

Yes, he would send somebody else.

 

Notes

 

A faggot, in the meaning of ““bundle”, is an archaic English unit applied to bundles of certain items. Alternate spellings in Early Modern English include fagate, faget, fagett, faggott, fagot, fagatt, fagott, ffagott, and faggat

 

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